Courtesy Oestara Publishing LLC

Many sentences consist of more than one clause.  Clauses are joined together by conjunctions.  There will be some relationship between the clauses; that is, they will be tied in meaning in some way.  The conjunction used to join the clauses must be selected for appropriate meaning.

Clauses can be joined together by the idea of TIME:


Clauses can ADD an idea to another clause:


The action of one clause may happen only because of the other clause; this is called CONDITION:


One clause may CAUSE another; this is called CAUSALITY or RESULT:


A conjunction can also show that one clause is used to EMPHASIZE the other:


A conjunction can indicate that the two clauses show DIFFERENCES.  It may be useful to think of the conjunction as ‘NOT!’:


To make sure you use these fancy conjunctions correctly, look them up in the dictionary and write down their meanings:

nevertheless  moreover  therefore  thus  whereas  indeed  furthermore

Look them up yourself!

To see how conjunctions tie two clauses together, the subjects have been underlined; the verbs are in bold; the conjunctions are in italits with any commas in bold.

1.  After she had read some romance novels, the princess went into the garden. TIME

2. While the princess sat on the edge of the pool, she watched a frog.  TIME

3.  Since the frog was ugly, the princess found it fascinating. CAUSality

4.  When the frog spoke to her, she nearly fell into the water. TIME

5.  The princess was thrilled to be speaking to a frog; indeed, she thought it might be a handsome prince.  EMPHASIS

6.  She wanted to hold it; moreover, she wanted to kiss it.  ADD

7.  Since the princess constantly read old stories, she knew kissing ugly, talking frogs turned them into handsome princes.  CAUSality

8.  The frog wanted the princess to kiss him; in fact, he seemed eager for her to do it. EMPHASIS

9.  Oddly, the frog had long fangs; nevertheless, the princess puckered up and planted a big one on his head.  NOT!  (DIFFERENCE)

10. The frog turned into a handsome vampire, and he sucked up all the princess’s blood!  ADD

11.  A witch had turned the vampire into a frog because she hoped to prevent tragedies. CAUSality

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copyright 1999 Cynthia Joyce Clay