Many sentences consist of more than one clause. Clauses are joined together by conjunctions. There will be some relationship between the clauses; that is, they will be tied in meaning in some way. The conjunction used to join the clauses must be selected for appropriate meaning.
Clauses can be joined together by the idea of TIME:
WHEN WHENEVER AFTER AFTERWARDS
WHILE DURING SINCE BEFORE
Clauses can ADD an idea to another clause:
,AND ;FURTHERMORE, ;ALSO, ;IN ADDITION,
The action of one clause may happen only because of the other clause; this is called CONDITION:
One clause may CAUSE another; this is called CAUSALITY or RESULT:
BECAUSE ;THEREFORE, ,FOR ;CONSEQUENTLY,
A conjunction can also show that one clause is used to EMPHASIZE the other:
;INDEED, ;IN FACT,
A conjunction can indicate that the two clauses show DIFFERENCES. It may be useful to think of the conjunction as ‘NOT!’:
,YET ALTHOUGH THOUGH
EVEN THOUGH ;NEVERTHELESS
To make sure you use these fancy conjunctions correctly, look them up in the dictionary and write down their meanings:
nevertheless moreover therefore thus whereas indeed furthermore
Look them up yourself!
To see how conjunctions tie two clauses together, the subjects have been underlined; the verbs are in bold; the conjunctions are in italits with any commas in bold.
1. After she had read some romance novels, the princess went into the garden. TIME
2. While the princess sat on the edge of the pool, she watched a frog. TIME
3. Since the frog was ugly, the princess found it fascinating. CAUSality
4. When the frog spoke to her, she nearly fell into the water. TIME
5. The princess was thrilled to be speaking to a frog; indeed, she thought it might be a handsome prince. EMPHASIS
6. She wanted to hold it; moreover, she wanted to kiss it. ADD
7. Since the princess constantly read old stories, she knew kissing ugly, talking frogs turned them into handsome princes. CAUSality
8. The frog wanted the princess to kiss him; in fact, he seemed eager for her to do it. EMPHASIS
9. Oddly, the frog had long fangs; nevertheless, the princess puckered up and planted a big one on his head. NOT! (DIFFERENCE)
10. The frog turned into a handsome vampire, and he sucked up all the princess’s blood! ADD
11. A witch had turned the vampire
into a frog because she hoped to prevent tragedies.
To the Grammar Table of Contents
copyright 1999 Cynthia Joyce Clay